Reference Works

Power versus Efficiency for Land Speed Record Vehicles - SAE 942491

Abstract - A computer simulation program has been developed to evaluate vehicle performance for record attempts at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, USA. A nine mile long straight line course is expected to be available in good weather conditions. Performance data from the unlimited automobile speed record holder is reviewed for comparison with projected speed vs. distance plots of a proposed new vehicle. The record being challenged, 246mph, is for a limited displacement vehicle of 2.0 liters or less. The analysis provides comparative results for several techniques for enhanced performance.

Limited Temperature Cycle - SAE 951963

Abstract - Increased thermal efficiency for spark-ignition engines is studied experimentally using computer simulation of a three phase heat relaese model. Various compression ratios, combined with advanced multiple-direct-injection techniques are researched in an effort to extend the effectiveness of current engine designs beyond their present knock-limited compression ratio. A new ideal engine cycle is presented to demonstrate the conditions appropriate for use of 88-98 octane fuel and spark-ignition with an 18:1 compression ratio. The value of isothermal combustion to achieve over 42% brake thermal efficiency is presented.

University of Wisconsin - Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-Injection in a Diesel Engine (SAE 960633)

Abstract - Laboratory experiments have shown that with high-pressure multiple injections (two or more injection pulses per power cycle), the soot-NOx trade-off curves of a diesel engine can be shifted closer to the origin than those with single-pulse injection, reducing both soot and NOx emissions significantly. In order to understand the mechanism, multidimensional computations were carried out for a heavy-duty diesel engine with multiple injections. Different injection schemes and timings were considered. The predicted cylinder pressure, heat release rate and soot and NOx emissions are compared with the measured data. Agreements between prediction and measurement are achieved after improvements on models were made. The improvements include using a RNG k-e turbulence model, adopting a new wall heat transfer model and introducing the nozzle discharge coefficient to model the contraction of fuel jet at the nozzle exit. Based on the computations, a mechanism of emissions reductions using multiple-injection is suggested.

University of Wisconsin - Exploring the Use of Multiple Injectors and Split Injection to Reduce DI Diesel Engine Emissions (SAE 962058)

This research uses computational modeling to explore methods to increase diesel engine power density while maintaining low pollutant emission levels. Previous experimental studies have shown that injection-rate profiles and injector configurations play important roles on the performance and emissions of particulate and NOx in DI diesel engines. However, there is a lack of systematic studies and fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of spray atomization, mixture formation and distribution, and subsequently, the combustion processes in spray/spray and spray/swirl interaction and flow configurations.

In this study, the effects of split injections and multiple injector configurations on diesel engine emissions are investigated numerically using a multi-dimensional computer code. In order to be able to explore the effects of enhanced fuel-air mixing, the use of multiple injectors with different injector locations, spray orientations and impingement angles was studied. The interaction of the spray with the geometry of the combustion chamber was also systematically studied. The potential for the use of multiple injectors to increase engine power density and to significantly reduce particulate and NOx emissions in DI diesel engines is revealed. This work demonstrates that multidimensional modeling can now be used to gain insight into the combustion process and to provide direction for exploring new engine concepts.

DieselNet - Diesel Exhaust Emission Standards

Abstract - Summary of worldwide diesel emission standards, in cooperation with Diesel Progress Magazine.


Kruse US Patents



Kruse European Patents

United Kingdom - EP0653018
France - EP0653018
Germany - DE69327653
Italy - 221127BE/2000


Kruse International Patent

International application published under the Patent Cooperation Treaty of the World Intellectual Property Organization -